On-Demand Deployment Checklist

9 critical elements to a successful service and what to avoid.

Aug 12, 2019
Posted by:
JJ O'Brien
On-Demand Deployment Checklist

Experiential Learning will perfect ‘On-Demand Transport’

There is one word to sum up the how and why of on-demand public transport - “agile”. Be prepared to be agile and adapt the service to the needs of the passenger. Being able to deploy a model within a tight timeframe and have the ability to adapt it in real-time is one of the biggest advantages of on-demand transport and will result in quick uptake and loyal passengers.

Transport for NSW, an Australian State Transportation Agency, is undertaking the world’s most comprehensive, coordinated multi-site trials. The initial trial included 22 sites (11 metro,11 regional) and now has 24 active sites. The breadth of this trial is allowing the Agency to instigate learnings on a larger and much rapid scale, identifying key models, behaviors and motives that lead to greater coverage and increased convenience for passengers. Shifting people’s behaviour is no small feat and to do so, we must analyse the key attributes that encourage positive change.

Fogg Model for Behavioral Change explained:

Taking a look at the experience gained whilst participating in one of the world’s most comprehensive ongoing multi-site on-demand public transport trials, we must first explain our methodology as to how we arrived at our conclusions. We use the framework of Fogg’s Behavior Model to look at some of the key aspects of what makes an on-demand service work. In its simplest terms “B=MAT”.

Behaviour = Motivation + Ability + Triggers

When changing a behavior one must have the right forces in place to facilitate a change that will form new habits.

By looking at the three principal elements within the Fogg Behavioral Model we will provide a checklist of nine core things to think about when deploying a new on-demand transportation service.


This is the physical, social and emotive response people seek when adopting new ideas or behaviors. Motivation is valuable as it provides internal and environmental feedback on the status quo which can ultimately lead to an individual seeking a new path or staying the course.


This refers to the ‘cost’ of carrying out the tasks required for change.This ‘cost’ could be financial, time, social perception or even the challenge of learning something new. This is the perceived friction along the path to achieving something different.


The age old “What’s in it for me?” question. What is going to incentivise me to do something different? It may be legislation, an influencer, a cause or a discount. Triggers are the crucial element to give an individual a ‘shove’ inthe right direction.

Nine-Point Checklist


The following three items focus on areas that will help to provide the motivation for public and private agencies looking to deploy an on-demand transport service.

1. Check the influence of supporting infrastructure

Avoid deploying a service that competes with convenient parking facilities or reliable public transit services.

What external forces influence the primary mode of transport in a multi-modal journey?

For example, is there increased capacity from a new mass transit option available? Does this new transit capacity (passengers per hour) match the onboarding capability of the supporting infrastructure i.e. are there enough car parks for people driving? Do other modes feed passengers onto the service at a rate high enough to utilise the new asset appropriately?

2. Classify all transport services within the proposed zone

Avoid the ridiculous comparisons of cost in the first few months of service and make sure any gains made downstream within a transport network are clearly accounted for.

Low frequency fixed route services are the easiest services to convert and create a following. These services can transform to solve a first mile, last mile issue, connecting commuters to a main, high-frequency artery. The important consideration is the overall network effect. Do not look at the cost service in isolation but a full comparison of network efficiency over time. Does the new on-demand service improve mass rail patronage by ‘X’% each month? What is the average cost per passenger over the entire journey?

3. Multiply the motivators with parking problems

Avoid focusing solely on parking congestion as a main driver for deployment - commuters need options, just like they need multiple influential reasons to engage in different behavior.

Where is the proposed service located and are there visceral parking problems? Do people openly talk about their trouble parking and is there any current way of incentivising higher occupancy travel? Reduced stress from parking is one of the easiest benefits to leverage when designing shared mobility solutions. Make the benefits of safety, convenience and reduced trip time apparent when using a lack of, or poor parking as motivation to change behavior.


By exploring some abilities within shared mobility we will uncover not a feature set, but a set of capabilities and desired outcomes from a commuter-centric perspective. This section defines how simple it is for a commuter to affect change.

4. Define a start point, close to the status quo

Avoid looking for new flashy features within the app.

By providing transport to those that need it most, you must account for the many different types of personal situations that arise. In this age of instant gratification a user base will quickly tell you if the app is not working by the social ‘justice’ one can administer one tweet at a time. Therefore the focus should not be on a feature set, but the ability for the commuter/user to feel comfortable whilst being intuitively guided through the booking process. First focus on identifying the critical behavioral queues then build the service and technology around them. I.e. If a passenger will only walk up to 150m before choosing a different mode of transport then build this into the overall design.

5. Can an approved carer make a booking on behalf of the passenger?

Avoid being constrained to a fixed outcome, on-demand transport is fluid by nature, therefore don't be afraid of taking a phased approach and rolling out additional capability after you have tested the first iteration.

Ensuring that your fleet is equipped with the appropriate modifications that enable all passengers to access the vehicle in a similar manner goes a long way towards providing transit equity. Whilst on-demand transport is improving every day with new technology it’s important to remember that some passengers may not require or be able to use a smartphone. This is where call center support and ‘surrogate’ bookings help expand the reach and improve the ability for specific people to use the service.

6. Don’t over-complicate it with additional competition

Avoid placing an on-demand service where it will compete with existing services or compromise the overall goal for public transport in the area.

There have been multiple stories of failed on-demand businesses around the globe. The successful deployments have shown an ability to provide ongoing synergies with the overall transport network by;

  1. Improving access to, and integration with high-capacity mass-transit modes
  2. Improving and deploying convenient first-mile, last-mile commuting options
  3. Increasing vehicle utilisation and decreasing operational costs

Given our population’s preference for single occupancy commuting, it is imperative that when presented with an alternative, the ability or 'friction’ felt when making a change is minimal, is an improvement on old habits, and is facilitated in a way that makes sense for the commuter.


The final section speaks about the ‘triggers’ or ‘incentives’ required to balance out the behavioral forces that instigate positive change, read on for specific incentives to ‘nudge’ commuters in the right direction.

7. Don’t be afraid to modify pickup and drop off options

Avoid placing too many constraints on the service during launch phase and strategically wind back the flexible pickup options by consolidating major pickup zones in order to improve vehicle utilisation.

The greatest incentive of an on-demand service is convenience. Fixed route services are rigid, fixed and in this sense, unable to adapt to demand. A point-to-point or point-to-hub service incentivises commuters through the promise of convenience - making it easier to get to your destination or connect to a second leg. This flexible connection is characterised by the term ‘first-mile, last-mile’ and is predicated on the fact that the hardest and most inconvenient legs of a journey now become convenient and flexible filled by on-demand transportation operators. This is one of the main benefits to on-demand transport and is a main contributor for on-boarding new passengers to public transport.

8. Prioritise convenience over utilisation initially

Avoid finding the ultimate solution dayone and ensure that passengers receive a convenient door-to-door or curbside pickup.

Key constraints come into play to optimise an on-demand transport service. It is important that critical service levers can be adjusted to introduce or mitigate friction and ultimately improve or degrade the passenger experience. Allowing the passenger to define the pickup and drop off location places the control firmly in the hands of the passenger whilst at the same time introduces potential friction for subsequent passengers and may have an effect on wait times. Ultimately it is a balance between degrading the passenger experience and managing fleet utilisation - too convenient, then a vehicle will be forever prioritising convenience over utilisation. Merged stops forcing passengers to get their on-demand bus at a centralised location prioritises fleet utilisation and degrades the passenger experience by making them walk to a pickup or from a drop off location.

9. Clear communications on how and where to access the service

Avoid being overly conservative to a degree that it may hinder uptake.

Ensuring there is excellent marketing support and training in place will give the service the best chance for success. People need to be incentivised to do something and the first tactic for triggering an event is pure awareness. Communicating the service and how it will fit into your commuter’s daily schedule is critical to getting acceptance and ongoing change. With many contentious issues in the market, it is easy to hedge bets and aim for low touch soft launches. Make sure that there is a comprehensive communications plan in place that will inform, educate and incentivise commuters and don’t be afraid to modify your approach.

By considering the nine points madehere today you are well placed to make informed decisions on how to best deploy an on-demand transportservice.

If you are interested in finding out more, speak to one of our mobility consultants.

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